Neuropsychiatric Glossary

Use this glossary to look up the neuropsychiatric terms on The Brain Card®. Enter a few letters to start your search. You can also click on the alphabet letters below:

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Pain agnosia
Inability to fully recognize pain

Palilalia
Spontaneous repetition of one's own words in an accelerating fashion

Palinopsia
Visual perseveration in time (after images)

Palmomental (reflex)
Release sign in which stroking palm with a sharp stimulus evokes contraction of the ipsilateral mentalis muscle

Panoramic vision
Rapid recall of past events

Paracusis
Hearing distorted sounds

Paralinguistic
Contributions to communication in addition to the expression & comprehension of language (e.g. pun, sarcasm, idiom, double-entendre, emotional prosody governed by right hemisphere)

Paraphasia
See paraphasic error

Paraphasic error
Involuntary word substitution errors

Paraphilia
Recurrent sexual urges and fantasies associated with deviant sexual behavior

Parasomnia
Abnormal sleep behaviors or physiologic events with full or partial arousal in REM, non-REM, or transition to or from sleep

Pareidolia
Vague stimuli perceived as recognizable images (e.g. seeing faces in the clouds)

Paresis
Neurologically induced weakness in extremity(ies)

Paresthesia
Prickly sensation in dermatome of peripheral nerve

Pathological laughing & crying
Sudden outbursts of emotional display in response to minor affective stimuli

Pathological startle
Exaggerated jerking startle reflex

Peduncular (hallucination)
Vivid movie-like non-paranoid complex hallucinations often associated with cognitive deficits

Pelopsia
Illusion of objects appearing closer

Perseveration
Involuntary repetition or continuation of a verbal or motor task after it's no longer appropriate

Phonagnosia
Inability to recognize voices

Phoneme fluency
Number of words produced beginning with a given letter

Phonemic (paraphasia)
Substitution of a nonsense word with similar sound to the desired word in aphasia

Phosphene
Visual sensations evoked by mechanical or other stimulation of eye

Pica
Eating non-food objects

PLMD
Periodic limb movement disorder

Polyopsia
Illusion of multiples of objects (form of palinopsia)

Post-ictal
Period after seizure activity

Praxis
Ability to carry out skilled movements

Propulsion
Tendency to fall forward due to impaired postural reflexes

Prosody
Musical quality of speech

Prosopagnosia
Inability to recognize faces

Pseudohallucination
A hallucination known to patient to be non-real

Psychological pillow
Contraction of sternomastoid muscles in catatonia so as to hold the head inches off the bed

Pull test
Evaluation of postural reflexes by warning patient, then suddenly pulling back on shoulders while standing behind patient

Punning
Loose associations or flight of ideas in which words are connected solely by being puns